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Peer-Reviewed Publications

Liddy C, Cooper L, Bellingham G, Deyell T, Ingelmo P, Moroz I, Poulin P, Singer A, Logan GS, Visca R, Zahrai A, Buckley N (2024 June). Patient-reported wait times and the impact of living with chronic pain on their quality of life: a waiting room survey in chronic pain clinics in Ontario, Manitoba, and Quebec. Canadian Journal of Pain. 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/24740527.2024.2345612

"Waiting Room Survey Infographic"

Gill G, Zankar S, Goulet D, Liddy C, Afkham A, Keely E (2024 June). Characterizing types of diabetes clinical questions and answers provided via eConsults. Canadian Journal of Diabetes. 48(4):269-272.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjd.2024.01.008.

"Diabetes eConsults Infographic"

Schneider T, Farrell B, Karunananthan S, Afkham A, Keely E, Liddy C, McCarthy LM (2024 April). Classification system for primary care provider eConsults about medications for older adults with frailty. BMC Prim Care. 25(1):104. doi: 10.1186/s12875-024-02340-5.

Karunananthan S, Bonacci G, Fung C, Huang A, Robert B, McCutcheon T, Houghton D, Hakimjavadi R, Keely E, Liddy C (2024 January). What do primary care providers want to know when caring for patients living with frailty? An analysis of eConsult communications between primary care providers and specialists. BMC Health Serv Res. 24(1):76. doi: 10.1186/s12913-024-10542-x.

"Frailty eConsults Infographic"

Keely E, Guglani S, Mitchell E, Sethuram C, Afkham A, & Liddy C (2023, October). Specialists accessing specialty advice: Evaluating utilization, benefits, and impact of care of an e-consultation service. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare. doi:10.1177/1357633X231211352

"Specialists Accessing Specialty Advice Infographic"

Lai AT, Keely E, McCutcheon T, Liddy C, Afkham A, Frost DW (2023 September). A retrospective analysis of the use of electronic consultation in general internal medicine. Internal Medicine Journal. 53(9), 1642-1647. doi: 10.1111/imj.15940 

"General Internal Medicine eConsults Infographic"

 

Sethuram C, Brown W, Gill G, Liddy C, Afkham A, Keely E. (2023 September). Improving access to osteoporosis specialists using electronic consultations. Endocrine Practice. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eprac.2023.09.005  

"Osteoporosis eConsults Infographic"

Walter G, Jeimy S, Liddy C, Guglani S, Ellis A, Blair A, Kobayaa H, Chad Z, Keely E (2023, May). Utility of eConsults for COVID-19 vaccine-related concerns in Ontario: a cross-sectional analysis. Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology, 19(38). doi: 10.1186/s13223-023-00789-0

"COVID-19 Vaccine eConsults Infographic"

Hakimjavadi R, Karunananthan, S, Levi C, LeBlanc K, Guglani S, Helmer-Smith M, Keely E, & Liddy C (2023, April). Electronic consultation use by advanced practice nurses in older adult care—A descriptive study of service utilization data. Nursing Open, 10(4), 2240–2248. https://doi.org/10.1002/nop2.1476

"APN Utilization Infographic"

Hakimjavadi R, Karunananthan S, Fung C, Levi C, Helmer-Smith M, LaPlante J, Gazarin M, Rahgozar A, Afkham A, Keely E, Liddy C (2023 March). Using electronic consultation (eConsult) to identify frailty in provider-to-provider communication: a feasibility and validation study. BMC Geriatr., 23(136). doi: 10.1186/s12877-023-03870-w

Sethuram C, McCutcheon T, & Liddy C (2023). An Environmental Scan of Ontario Health Teams: A Descriptive Study. BMC Health Serv. Res., 23(1), 225-22. doi: 10.1186/s12913-023-09102-6

 

Hakimjavadi R, Karunananthan S, Alexander G, Fung C, Gazarin M, Houghton D, Hsu AT, LaPlante J, Levi C,  Tanuseputro P, & Liddy C (2023, February). What is the level of information technology maturity in Ontario’s long-term care homes? A cross-sectional survey study protocol. BMJ Open, 13(2), e064745. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-064745

Archibald D, Grant R, Tuot DS, Liddy C, Sewell JL, Price DW, Grad R, Shipman SA, Campbell C, Guglani S, Wood TJ & Keely E (2023, January). Development of eConsult reflective learning tools for healthcare providers: a pragmatic mixed methods approach. BMC Prim. Care, 25, 15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12875-022-01948-9 

Sakanovic A, Hadden WJ, Guglani S, Afkham A, Liddy C, Keely E, Meulenkamp B (2022, December). The effect of eConsult on the provision of orthopaedic services in Nunavut. Int J Circumpolar Health, 81(1), 2151551. doi: 10.1080/22423982.2022.2151551  

"Orthopaedic eConsults in Nunavut Infographic"

 

Hadden WJ, Guglani S, Sakanovic A, Liddy C, Keely E, Meulenkamp B (2022, September). Access to orthopedic specialist service in Ontario via eConsult. Can J Surg., 65(5), E643-E649. doi: 10.1503/cjs.005820

**Orthopedics eConsults Infographic**

Petrovic B, O'Brien MA, Liddy C, Afkham A, McGee SF, Morgan SC, Segal R, Bender JL, Sussman J, Urquhart R, Fitch M, Schneider ND, Grunfeld E (2022, November 3). Patient and Healthcare Provider Perspectives on the Implementation of a Web-Based Clinical Communication System for Cancer: A Qualitative Study. Curr Oncol, 29(11), 8401-8414. doi: 10.3390/curroncol29110662  

Singer A, Ireland L, Sepehri Z, Brown K, Turner K, Liddy C, Keely E , Oppenheimer L (2022, October). Evaluation of BASE eConsult Manitoba: Patient Perspectives on the use of Electronic Consultation to Improve Access to Specialty Advice in Manitoba. BMC Health Serv. Res., 23(1). doi: 10.1186/s12913-022-08913-3

Keely E, Mitchell R, Guglani S, Archibald D, Afkham A, Liddy C (2022, September). Benefits of Providing Feedback and Utilisation Metrics to Specialists on Their Participation in eConsult. J. Eur. CME, 11(1), 2116193. doi:10.1080/21614083.2022.2116193 

Liddy C, Mitchell R, Guglani S, Mihan A, Sethuram C, Miville A, Keely E (2022, May). The Provincial Spread and Scale of the Ontario eConsult Service: Evaluation of the First Two Years. Annals of Family Medicine, 20(3), 262-265. doi: 10.1370/afm.2812 

Sethuram C, Helmer-Smith M, Karunananthan S, Keely E, Singh J, & Liddy C (2022, July). Electronic consultation in correctional facilities worldwide: A scoping review. BMJ Open, 12, e055049. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-055049 

Carroll JC, Liddy C, Afkham A, Keely E, Goh ES, Graham GE, Permaul JA, Allanson J, Heisey R, Makuwaza T, Mancal DP, O’Brien MA, Grunfeld E (2022, August). Use of eConsult to enhance genetics service delivery in primary care: A multimethod study. Genet. Med, 24(10), 2034-2041. doi:doi.org/10.1016/j.gim.2022.07.003 

**Genetics eConsults Infographic**

Liddy C, Guglani S, Ratzlaff T, Campbell RJ, Cranston L, Miville A, Ten Hove M and Keely E (2022, June). Expanding the scope of an eConsult service: acceptability and feasibility of an optometry–ophthalmology pilot project. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology, S0008-4182(22), 00010-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjo.2022.01.007 

Liddy C, Singh J, Mitchell R, Guglani S, Keely E (2022, May). How One eConsult Service Is Addressing Emerging COVID-19 Questions. J Am Board Fam Med, 35(3), 601-604. doi:10.3122/jabfm.2022.03.210264 

Singh J, Garber GE, Keely E, Guglani S, Liddy C (2022, May). Evaluation of an Electronic Consultation Service for COVID-19 Care. Ann Fam Med, 20(3), 220-226. doi:10.1370/afm.2807 

Guglani S, Liddy C, Afkham A, Mitchell R, & Keely E (2022). The Ontario Electronic Consultation (eConsult) Service: Cross-sectional Analysis of Utilization Data for 2 Models. JMIR formative research, 6(4), e32101. doi: 10.2196/32101 

"Comparing Two Models Infographic"

Staykov E, Helmer-Smith M, Fung C, Tanuseputro P, Liddy C (2022, January). Development of the electronic consultation long-term care utilization and savings estimator tool to model the potential impact of electronic consultation for residents living in long-term care. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, e[Pub]. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/1357633X221074500 

Hakimjavadi R, Levi C, LeBlanc K, Guglani S, Helmer-Smith M, Joschko J, Karunananthan S, Keely E, Liddy C (2022). Electronic Consultation by Advanced Practice Nurses to Improve Access to Specialist Care for Older Adults. J Gerontol Nurs, 48(4), 33-40. doi:10.3928/00989134-20220307-02 

Liddy C, Boulay E, Crowe L, Dumas-Pilon M, Drimer N, Farrell G, Ireland L, Kirvan C, Nabelsi V, Singer A, Wilson M, Keely E (2021, December). Impact of a Connected Medicine Collaborative to improve access to specialist care. CMAJ Open, 9(4), E1187-E1194. doi:https://doi.org/10.9778/cmajo.20200210 

Singh J, Guglani S, Keely E, Garber G, Liddy C (2021, December). The Utilization of an Electronic Consultation Service During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic. Telemedicine and e-Health, 28(7), 994-1000. doi:http://doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2021.0497 

Leduc JG, Keely E, Liddy C, Afkham A, Marovac M, Guglani S (2021, July). Improving primary care access to respirologists using eConsult. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 33(3), mzab105. doi:.org/10.1093/intqhc/mzab105 

Singh J, Lou A, Green M, Keely E, Greenaway M, Liddy C (2021, March). Evaluation of an electronic consultation service for transgender care. BMC Family Practice, 22(1), 1-9. doi: 10.1186/s12875-021-01401-3

**Transgender eConsults Infographic**

Pun N, Arnaout A, Tran C, Liddy C, Keely E (2021, March). Comparing the content of traditional faxed consultations to eConsults within an academic endocrinology clinic. Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology, 24(2021), 100260. doi:.org/10.1016/j.jcte.2021.100260 

Keely E, Liddy C (2021, February). Specialist Participation in e-Consult and e-Referral Services: Best Practices. Telemedicine and e-Health, 27, 17-19. doi:10.1089/tmj.2020.0023

**Specialist Best Practice Guide**

Tran C, Archibald D, Humphrey-Murto S, Wood T, Dudek N, Liddy C, Keely E (2021, February). eConsult Specialist Quality of Response (eSQUARE): a novel tool to measure specialist correspondence via electronic consultation. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, e[Pub], 1357633X21998216. doi:10.1177/1357633X21998216 

Fung C, Shah S, Helmer-Smith M, Levi C, Keely E, Liddy C (2021). Clinical questions asked by long-term care providers through eConsult: A retrospective study. Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, 7. doi:10.1177/23337214211032055 

Keely E, Rostom K, Smith D, Liddy C (2021, January). A comparison of faxed referrals and eConsult questions for rheumatology referrals: a descriptive study. CMAJ Open, 9(1), e38-e43. doi:10.9778/cmajo.20200025 

Moroz I, Archibald D, Breton M, Cote-Boileau E, Crowe L, Horsley T, Hyseni L, Johar G, Keely E, Burns KK, Kuziemsky C, LaPlante J, Mihan A, Oppenheimer L, Sturge D, Tuot DS, Liddy C (2020, December). Key factors for national spread and scale-up of an eConsult Innovation. Health Research Policy and Systems, 18(1), 1-10. doi:10.1186/s12961-020-00574-0 

Liddy C, Sethuram C, Mihan A, Moroz I, Keely E (2020, November). Primary care providers’ perspectives on the Ontario eConsult Program. Telemedicine and eHealth, 27(9), 1039-1045. doi:10.1089/tmj.2020.0338 

Walker D, Macdonald DB, Dennie C, Afkham A, Liddy C, Keely E (2020, October). Electronic Consultation Between Primary Care Providers and Radiologists. American Journal of Roentgenology, 215(4), 929-933. doi:10.2214/AJR.19.22270 

Morris J, Liddy C (2020, July). Evaluating Implementation Factors of Indigenous Communities in Northern Ontario for eConsult. Global Health: Annual Review, 1(5), 5-5. 

Liddy C, Hauteclocque J, Moroz I, Oppenheimer L, Sturge D, Burns KK, Horsley T, Tuot D, Keely E (2020, June). Enabling patient-centred policy for electronic consultation: A qualitative analysis of discussion from a stakeholder meeting. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, e[Pub], 1357633X20926779. doi:10.1177/1357633X20926779 

Liddy C, Moroz I, Affleck E, Boulay E, Cook S, Crowe L, Drimer N, Ireland L, Jarrett P, MacDonald S, McLellan D (2020, June). How long are Canadians waiting to access specialty care?. Canadian Family Physician, 66(6), 434-444. 

Russell C, Sandu V, Moroz I, Tran C, Keely E, Liddy C (2020, June). Key Components of Traditional Consultation Letters and Their Relevancy to Electronic Consultation Replies: A Systematic Review. Telemedicine and e-Health, 26(6), 686-699. doi:10.1089/tmj.2019.0161 

Chang Y, Carsen S, Keely E, Liddy C, Kontio K, Smit K (2020, May). Electronic consultation systems: Impact on pediatric orthopaedic care. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics, 40(9), 531-535. doi: 10.1097/BPO.0000000000001607

Liddy C, de Man G, Moroz I, Afkham A, Mercer J, Keely E (2020, May). Effective Integration of an eConsult Service into an Existing Referral Workflow Within a Primary Care Clinic. Telemedicine and e-Health, 26(5), 659-664. doi:10.1089/tmj.2019.0014

**Integrating eConsult into a Primary Care Clinic's Workflow Infographic**

Helmer-Smith M, Fung C, Afkham A, Crowe L, M Gazarin M, Keely E, Moroz I, C Liddy (2020, April). The Feasibility of Using Electronic Consultation in Long-Term Care Homes. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 21(8), 1166-1170.e2. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.03.003

**Feasibility of eConsult in LTC Infographic**

Keely E, Afkham A, Liddy C (2020, April). Insight into Specialists' Participation and Self-Reported Billing Times in Multispecialty eConsult Service: Correlating Response Length with Outcomes and Satisfaction. Telemedicine and e-Health, 26(4), 419-425. doi:10.1089/tmj.2019.0032 

Clare Liddy (2020, March). Patient acceptability of eConsult. Annals of Family Medicine, e[Pub]. 

Liddy C, Joschko J, Guglani S, Afkham A, Keely E (2019, October). Improving Equity of Access Through Electronic Consultation: A Case Study of an eConsult Service. Frontiers in Public Health, 7, 279-288. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2019.00279 

Kendall C, Porter J, Shoemaker E, Kang R, Fitzgerald M, Keely E, Afkham A, Crowe L, MacPherson P, Rosens R, Lundigran P, Bibeau C, Liddy C (2019, August). Evolving toward Shared HIV Care Using the Champlain BASE eConsult Service. MDM Policy & Practice, 4(2). doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/2381468319868216

**HIV eConsults Infographic** 

Wang C, Liddy C, Islam S, Afkham A, Shehata F, Posner G, Keely E (2019, July). Pathology perspective on gynecologic malignancy screening questions in electronic consultation. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, [epub before print], 1357633X19864825. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/1357633X19864825

**Gynaecologic Cancer Screening eConsults Infographic** 

Nabelsi V, Eysenbach G, Lévesque-Chouinard A, Liddy C, Dumas Pilon M (2019, July). Improving Referral Process, Timeliness, Effectiveness, and Equity of Access to Specialist Medical Services through eConsult: A Pilot Study. JMIR Medical Informatics, 7(3), e13354. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/13354 

Liddy C, Abu-Hijleh T, Joschko J, Archibald D, Keely E (2019, July). eConsult and learning between primary care providers and specialists. Family Medicine, 51(7), 567-573. doi:http:dx.doi.org/10.22454/FamMed.2019.407574 

Liddy C, Moroz I, Keely E, Taljaard M, Deri Armstrong C, Afkham A, Kendall C (2019, June). Understanding the impact of a multispecialty electronic consultation service on family physician referral rates to specialists: A stepped wedge randomized controlled trial using population-based health administrative data. Trials, 20, 348. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-019-3393-5 

Keely E, Afkham A, Liddy C (2019, May). Insights into Specialists' Participation and Self-Reported Billing Times in a Multispecialty eConsult Service: Correlating Response Length with Outcomes and Satisfaction. Telemedicine and e-Health, 26(4), 419-425. doi:https://doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2019.0032 

Keely E, Liddy C (2019, April). Transforming the specialist referral-consultation process in Canada. CMAJ, 191(15), E408-E409. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.181550

de Man G, Moroz I, Mercer J, Keely E, Liddy C (2019, April). Primary care clinician adherence to specialist advice in electronic consultation. Annals of Family Medicine, 17(2), 150-157. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1370/afm.2355

**PCP Adherence to Specialist Advice for eConsult Infographic**

Liddy C, Moroz I, Mihan A, Nawar N, Keely E (2019, March). A Systematic Review of Asynchronous, Provider-to-Provider, Electronic Consultation Services to Improve Access to Specialty Care Available Worldwide. Telemedicine and e-Health, 25(3), 184-198. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2018.0005

Keely E, Williams R, Epstein G, Afkham A, Liddy C (2019, March). Specialist perspectives on Ontario eConsult services. Journal of Telemedicine and e-Health, 25(3), 184-198. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2018.0012

**Specialist Perspectives Infographic**

Tran C, Archibald D, Humphrey-Murto S, Liddy C, Keely E (2019, February). What Makes a High Quality Electronic Consultation (eConsult)? A Nominal Group Study. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 1-9. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1357633X18822885 

Bhola P, Liddy C, Afkham A, Keely E, Graham G (2019, February). A Pilot eConsultation Service in Eastern Ontario: Bridging Clinical Genetics and Primary Care. European Journal of Human Genetics, 27, 1026-1032. doi: 10.1038/s41431-019-0342-4

Osman M, Schick-Makaroff K, Thompson s, Bialy L, Featherstone R, Kurzawa J, Zaidi D, Okpechi L, Habib S, Shojai S, Jindal K, Braam B, Keely E, Liddy C, Manns B, Tonelli M, Hemmelgarn B, Klarenbach S, Bello A (2019). Barriers and facilitators for implementation of electronic consultations (eConsult) to enhance access to specialist care: a scoping review. BMJ Global Health, 4(5), e001629. doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2019-001629 

Liddy C, Bello A, Cook J, Drimer N, Dumas Pilon M, Farrell G, Glassford J, Ireland L, McDonald R, Nabelsi V, Oppenheimer L, Singer A, Keely E (2019). Supporting the Spread and Scale-up of eConsult across Canada: cross-sectional analysis. BMJ Open, 9(5), e028888. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028888

**National Implementation Infographic** 

Liddy C, Moroz I, Mihan A, Keely E (2019). Assessment of the Generalizability of an eConsult Service through Implementation in a New Health Region. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 32(2), 146-157. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2019.02.180169 

Liddy C, Moroz I, Keely E, Taljaard M, Mark Fraser A, Deri Armstrong C, Afkham A, Kendall C (2018, December). The use of eConsult is associated with lower specialist referral rates: A cross sectional study using population-based health administrative data. Family Practice, 35(6), 698-705. doi: 10.1093/fampra/cmy020

Joschko J, Keely E, Grant R, Moroz I, Graveline M, Drimer N, Liddy C (2018, December). Electronic Consultation Services Worldwide: An Environmental Scan. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 20(12), e11112. doi:http://doi.org/10.2196/11112

**World Environmental Scan Infographic**

Tuot D, Liddy C, Vimalananda V, Pecina J, Murphy E, Keely E, Simon S, North F, Orlander J,  Chen A (2018, October). Evaluating diverse electronic consultation programs with a common framework. BMC Health Services Research, 18, 814. doi: 10.1186/s12913-018-3626-4

Liddy C, Moroz I, Joschko J, Horsley T, Kuziemsky C, Kovacs Burns K, Kossey S, Mitera G, Keely E (2018, August). Using an integrated knowledge translation (IKT) approach to enable policy change for electronic consultations in Canada. Healthcare Policy, 14(1), 19-29. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.12927/hcpol.2018.25551 

Bradi AC, Sitwell L, Liddy C, Afkham A, Keely E (2018, June). Ask a Neurologist: What Primary Care Providers ask, and reducing referrals through eConsults. Neurology: Clinical Practice, 8(3). doi:.org/10.1212/CPJ.0000000000000458

**Neurology eConsults Infographic**

Maciejewski B, Jaana M, Keely E, Crowe L, Liddy C (2018, June). Social franchising: Scale and spread of innovation in Canada. Health Policy and Technology, 7, 217-223. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hlpt.2018.03.005 

Liddy C, Keely E (2018, May). Using the Quadruple Aim Framework to Measure Impact of Heath Technology Implementation: A Case Study of eConsult. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 31, 445-455. doi:http://www.jabfm.org/content/31/3/445.full

**Quadruple Aim Infographic** 

**eConsult Cost Savings Infographic**

Keely E, Canning S, Saloojee N, Afkham A, Liddy C (2018, May). Improving access to Gastroenterologist using eConsultation: A way to potentially shorten wait times. Journal of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology, 1(3), 124-128. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/jcag/gwy017 

**Gastroenterology eConsults Infographic**

Archibald D, Stratton J, Liddy C, Grant R, Green D, Keely E (2018, May). Evaluation of an electronic consultation service in psychiatry for primary care providers. BMC Psychiatry, 18, 119. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-018-1701-3

**Psychiatry eConsults Infographic**

Liddy C, Moroz I, Affleck E, Boulay E, Cook S, Crowe L, Drimer N, Ireland L, Jarrett P, MacDonald S, McLellan D, Mihan A, Miraftab N, Nabelsi V, Russell C, Singer A, Keely E (2018, February). Understanding patient referral wait times for specialty care in Ontario: A retrospective chart audit from the primary care perspective. Canadian Family Physician, 13(3), 59. doi:10.12927/hcpol.2018.25397 

Lai L, Liddy C, Keely E, Afkham A, Kurzawa J, Abdeen N, Audcent T, Bromwich M, Brophy J, Carsen S, Fournier A, Fraser-Roberts L, Gandy H, Hui C, Johnston D, Keely K, Kontio K, Lamontagne c, Major N, O'Connor M, Radhakrishnan D, Reisman J, Robb M, Samson L, Sell E, Splinter W, van Stralen J, Venkateswaran S, Murto K (2018, January). The impact of electronic consultation on a Canadian tertiary care pediatric specialty referral system: A prospective single-center observational study. PLoS ONE, 13(1), e0190247. doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0190247

**Pediatric Medicine eConsults Infographic**

Bilodeau H, Deri Armstrong C, Keely E, Liddy C (2018, January). Who uses eConsult? Investigating physician characteristics associated with usage (and non-usage). Telemedicine and e-Health, 24(7), 497-503. doi:dx.doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2017.0225 

Poulin PA, Romanow HC, Cheng J, Liddy C, Keely EJ, Smyth CE (2018). Offering eConsult to Family Physicians With Patients on a Pain Clinic Wait List: An Outreach Exercise. Journal of Healthcare Quality, 40(5), e71-e76. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JHQ.0000000000000117  

Archibald D, Liddy C, Lochnan HA, Hendry PJ, Keely E (2018). Using Clinical Questions through eConsults to Inform Continuing Professional Development. The Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 38(1), 41-48. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CEH.0000000000000187 

Joschko J, Liddy C, Moroz I, Reich M, Crowe L, Afkham A, Keely E (2018). Just a Click Away: Exploring patients’ perspectives on receiving care through the Champlain BASE eConsult service. Family Practice, 35(1), 93-98. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cmx073

**Just a Click Away -- Patient Perspectives Infographic**

Liddy C, Moroz I, Afkham A, Keely E (2018). Sustainability of a primary care-driven eConsult service. Annals of Family Medicine, 16(2), 120-126. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1370/afm.2177

**Five Year Growth of eConsult -- Sustainability of the Service Infographic** 

Rostom K, Smith CD, Liddy C, Drosinis P, Keely E (2018). Improving Access to Rheumatologists: Utilization and Benefits of an Electronic Consultation Service. Journal of Rheumatology, 45(1), 137-140. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.161529

**Rheumatology eConsults Infographic**

Chan E, Johnson C, Liddy C, Gautheir N, Keely E, Turek M, Shoki A, Archibald D (2018, January). Paging the eCardiologist: Insights into Referral Behaviour of Primary Care Providers from Qualitative Analysis of a Cardiology eConsult Service. Digital Health, 4, 1-9. doi: 10.1177/2055207618792140

Keely E, Li J, Magner P, Afkham A, Liddy C (2018, January). Nephrology eConsults for Primary Care Providers: Original Investigation. Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease, 5, 1-6. doi:http://doi.org/10.1177/2054358117753619

**Nephrology eConsults Infographic**

Archibald D, Liddy C, Keely E (2018). The doctor is (virtually) in: Using electronic consultation to provide access to prompt psychiatric services. Psychiatric Services, 69(3), 362. doi:https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.69302 

Kohlert S, Murphy P, Tse D, Liddy C, Afkham A, Keely E (2018). Improving access to otolaryngology–head and neck surgery expert advice through eConsultations. Laryngoscope, 128(2), 350-355. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.26677

**Otolaryngology eConsults Infographic**

Liddy C, Moroz I, Afkham A, Keely E (2017, November). Evaluating the implementation of The Champlain BASE eConsult service in a new region of Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional study. Healthcare Policy, 13(2), 79-95. doi:http://doi.org/10.12927/hcpol.2017.25320 

McKellips F, Keely E, Afkham A, Liddy C (2017, November). Improving access to allied health professionals through the Champlain BASE eConsult Service: a cross-sectional study in Canada. British Journal of General Practice, 67(664), e757-e763. doi:https://doi.org/10.3399/bjgp17X693125 

Skeith L, Mohamed M, Karovitch A, Liddy C, Afkham A, Archibald D, Keely E (2017, September). The use of eConsults to improve access to specialty care in thrombosis medicine. Thrombosis Research, 160, 105-108. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2017.11.002

**Thrombosis eConsults Infographic**

Bello A, Molzahn A, Girard L, Mohamed O, Okpechi I, Glassfor J, Thompson S, Keely E, Liddy C, Manns B, Jinda K, Klarenbach S, Hemmelgarn B, Tonelli M (2017). Patient and provider perspectives on the design and implementation of an electronic consultation system for kidney care delivery in Canada: a focus group study. BMJ Open, 7(3), e014784. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014784 

Liddy C, Poulin P, Hunter Z, Smyth C, Keely E (2017). Patient perspectives on wait times and the impact on their health: A waiting room survey in a chronic pain clinic. Scandinavian Journal of Pain Management, 17, 53-57. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjpain.2017.07.015

**Chronic Pain Wait Times Infographic**

Stanistreet K, Verma J, Kirvan K, Drimer N, Liddy C (2017). Physician Remuneration for Remote Consults: An Overview of Approaches across Canada. Healthcare Quarterly, 20(3), 12-15. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CEH.0000000000000187

Witherspoon L, Liddy C, Afkham A, Keely E, Mahoney J (2017). Improving access to Urologists through an Electronic Consultation Service. Canadian Urological Association Journal, 11(8), 270-274. doi:https://doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.4314

**Urology eConsults Infographic**

Johnston DL, Murto K, Kurzawa J, Liddy C, Keely E, Lai L (2017). Use of Electronic Consultation System to Improve Access to Care in Pediatric Hematology/Oncology. Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, 39(7), e367-e369. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000000833

**Pediatric Hematology/Oncology eConsults Infographic**

Liddy C, Arbab-Tafti S, Moroz I, Keely E (2017). Primary Care Physician Referral Patterns in Ontario, Canada: A Descriptive Analysis of Self-Reported Referral Data. BMC Family Practice, 18, 81. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12875-017-0654-9 

Murthy R, Rose G, Liddy C, Afkham A, Keely E (2017). eConsultations to Infectious Disease Specialists: Questions Asked and Impact on Primary Care Providers' Behavior. Open Forum Infectious Diseases, 4(2). doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofx030 

**Infectious Disease eConsults Infographic**

Liddy C, McKellips F, Deri Armstrong C, Afkham A, Fraser-Roberts L, Keely E (2017). Improving access to specialists in remote communities: A cross-sectional study and cost analysis of the use of eConsult in Nunavut. Journal of Circumpolar Health, 76(1), 1323493. doi:dx.doi.org/10.1080/22423982.2017.1323493

O'Toole A, Joo J, DesGroseilliers J-P, Liddy C, Glassman S, Afkham A, Keely E (2017). The Association between Question Type and the Outcomes of a Dermatology eConsult Service. International Journal of Dermatology, 56(8), 836-841. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijd.13628

**Dermatology eConsults Infographic**

Liddy C, Hunter Z, Mihan A, Keely E (2017). Use of Facebook as part of a Social Media Strategy for Patient Engagement. Canadian Family Physician, 63(3), 251-252. doi:http://www.cfp.ca/content/63/3/251.full 

Keely E, Archibald D, Tuot D, Lochnan H, Liddy C (2017). Unique educational opportunities for PCPs and Specialists arising from electronic consultation services. Academic Medicine, 92(1), 45-51. doi:10.1097/ACM.0000000000001472

Liddy C, Drosinis P, Fogel A, Keely E (2017). Prevention of delayed referrals through the Champlain BASE eConsult Service. Canadian Family Physician, 63(8), e381-e386. doi:http://www.cfp.ca/content/63/8/e381 

Liddy C, Smyth C, Poulin P, Joschko J, Sheppard M, Keely E (2017). Supporting better access to chronic pain specialties: a qualitative study of the Champlain BASE™ eConsult service. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 30, 766-774. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2017.06.170170

**Chronic Pain eConsults Infographic**
**Chronic Pain eConsults - French Infographic**

Liddy C, Drosinis P, Deri Armstrong C, McKellips F, Afkham A, Keely E (2016). What are the cost savings associated with providing access to specialist care through the Champlain BASE eConsult service? A costing evaluation. BMJ Open, 6, e010920. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010920 

Liddy C, Smyth C, Poulin P, Joschko J, Rebelo M, Keely E (2016). Improving access to chronic pain services through eConsultation: A cross-sectional study of the Champlain BASE eConsult service. Pain Medicine, 17(6), 1049-1057. doi: 10.1093/pm/pnw038

**Chronic Pain eConsults Infographic**

Liddy C, Deri Armstrong C, McKellips F, Drosinis P, Afkham A, Keely E (2016). Choosing a model for eConsult specialist remuneration: factors to consider. Health Affairs, 3(2), 8. doi: 10.3390/informatics3020008 

Liddy C, Drosinis P, Keely E (2016). Electronic consultation systems: worldwide prevalence and their impact on patient care: a systematic review. Family Practice, 33(2), 1-12. doi: 10.1093/fampra/cmw024 

Keely E, Tsang C, Liddy C, Farrell B, Power B, Way C (2016). Rationale and model for integrating the pharmacist into the outpatient referral-consultation process. Canadian Family Physician, 62(2), 111-114. doi:http://www.cfp.ca/content/62/2/111?etoc 

Liddy C, Drosinis P, Joschko J, Keely E (2016). Improving access to specialist care for an aging population. Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, 2, 1-7. doi: 10.1177/2333721416677195

**Geriatric Medicine eConsults Infographic** 

**Improving Access to Specialist Care for an Aging Population Infographic**

Shehata F, Posner G, Afkham A, Liddy C, Keely E (2016). Evaluation of an Electronic Consultation Service in Obstetrics and Gynecology in Ontario. Obstetrics & Gynecology Journal, 127(6), 1033-8. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000001431

**OBGYN eConsults Infographic** 

Tran C, Liddy C, Liu D, Afkham A, Keely E (2016). eConsults to endocrinologists improve access and change primary care provider behavior. Endocrine Practice, 22(10), 1145-1150. doi:http://journals.aace.com/doi/10.4158/E161321.OR

**Endocrinology eConsults Infographic**

Fogel A, Khamisa K, Afkham A, Liddy C, Keely E (2016). Ask the eConsultant: Improving access to hematology expertise using an asynchronous eConsult system. Telemedicine and eHealth, 23(3), 421-427. https://doi.org/10.1177/1357633x16644095

**Hematology eConsults Infographic**

Tran C, Liddy C, Pinto N, Keely E (2016). Impact of question content on eConsultation outcomes. Telemedicine Journal and e-Health, 22(3), 216-222. doi: 10.1089/tmj.2015.0081  

Keely E, Drosinis P, Afkham A, Liddy C (2015). Perspectives of Champlain BASE Specialist Physicians: Their Motivation, Experiences and Recommendations for Providing eConsultations to Primary Care Providers. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 209, 38-45. doi:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25980703 

Keely E, Traczyk L, Liddy C (2015). Patient Perspectives on Wait Times and the Referral-Consultation Process While Attending a Tertiary Endocrinology and Diabetes Centre: is eConsultation an Acceptable Option. Canadian Journal of Diabetes, 39(4), 325-329. doi:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1499267114007175 

Liddy C, Hogel M, Blazhko V, Keely E (2015). The Current State of Electronic Consultation & Electronic Referral Systems in Canada: an Environmental Scan. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 209, 75-83. doi:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25980708 

Liddy C, Afkham A, Drosinis P, Joschko J, Keely E (2015). Impact and satisfaction with a new eConsult service: a mixed methods study of primary care providers. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 28(3), 394-403. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2015.03.140255

Liddy C, Joschko J, Keely E (2015). Policy Innovation is Needed to Match Health Care Delivery Reform: The Story of the Champlain BASE eConsult Service. Health Reform Observer–Observatoire des Réformes de Santé, 3(2), 1-11. doi:https://escarpmentpress.org/hro-ors/article/view/2747/2514 

Liddy C, Deri Armstrong C, McKellips F, Keely E (2015). A comparison of referral patterns to a multispecialty eConsultation service between nurse practitioners and family physicians: the case for eConsult. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 28(3), 144-150. doi: 10.1002/2327-6924.12266 

Liddy C, Deri Armstrong C, Drosinis P, Mito-Yobo F, Afkham A, Keely E (2015). What are the costs of improving access to specialists through eConsultation? The Champlain BASE experience. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 209, 67-74. doi:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25980707 

Keely E, Liddy C (2015). Critical requirements and considerations for establishing and participating in an eConsultation service: Lessons learned from the Champlain BASE team. Electronic Healthcare Law Review, 5(1), 5-6. http://www.dimock.com/files/articles/GDM_NP_ElectronicHealthcareLawReview_5%231.pdf 

Keely E, Liddy C, Afkham A (2013). Utilization, Benefits, and Impact of an e-Consultation Service across Diverse Specialties and Primary Care Providers. Telemedicine Journal and eHealth, 19(10), 733. doi:10.1089/tmj.2013.0007 

Liddy C, Maranger J, Afkham A, Keely E (2013). The 10 Steps to Establishing an e-Consultation Service to Improve Access to Specialist Care. Telemedicine Journal and e-Health, 19(12), 982-90. doi:10.1089/tmj.2013.0056 

**10 steps to establishing eConsult Infographic**

Liddy C, Rowan SM, Afkham A, Maranger J, Keely E (2013). Building Access to Specialist Care through E-Consultation. Open Medicine, 7(1), e1-8. 

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