Peer-Reviewed Publications
  1. Helmer-Smith M, Fung C, Afkham A, Crowe L, Gazarin M, Keely E, Moroz I, Liddy C. The Feasibility of Using Electronic Consultation in Long-Term Care Homes. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2020                                                                          **View the Infographic**

  2. Liddy C, Joschko J, Guglani S, Afkham A, Keely E. Improving equity of access through electronic consultation: a case study of an eConsult service. Frontiers in Public Health 2019;7:279-288.

  3. Kendall C, Porter J, Shoemaker E, Kang R, Fitzgerald M, Keely E, Afkham A, Crowe L, MacPherson P, Rosens R, Lundigran P, Bibeau C, Liddy C. Evolving toward Shared HIV Care Using the Champlain BASE eConsult Service. MDM Policy & Practice 2019 [epub before print]

  4. Liddy C, de Man G, Moroz I, Afkham A, Mercer J, Keely E. Effective Integration of an eConsult Service into an Existing Referral Workflow Within a Primary Care Clinic. Telemedicine and e-Health 2019 [epub before print]                                                                                              **View the Infographic**

  5. Russell C, Sandu V, Moroz I, Tran C, Keely E, Liddy C. Key Components of Traditional Consultation Letters and Their Relevance to Electronic Consultation Replies: A Systematic Review. Telemedicine and e-Health 2019 [epub before print]

  6. Wang C, Liddy C, Islam S, Afkham A, Shehata F, Posner G, Keely E. Pathology perspective on gynecologic malignancy screening questions in electronic consultation. Telemedicine and Telecare 2019 [epub before print]                                                                                              **View the Infographic**

  7. Nabelsi V, Lévesque-Chouinard A, Liddy C, Dumas Pilon M. Improving the Referral Process, Timeliness, Effectiveness, and Equity of Access to Specialist Medical Services Through Electronic Consultation: Pilot Study. JMIR Medical Informatics 2019;7(3):e13354

  8. Liddy C, Moroz I, Keely E, Taljaard M, Deri Armstrong C, Afkham A, Kendall C. Understanding the impact of a multispecialty electronic consultation service on family physician referral rates to specialists: A stepped wedge randomized controlled trial using population-based health administrative data. Trials 2019;20:348

  9. Keely E, Afkham A, Liddy C. Insights into specialists’ participation and self-reported billing times in a multispecialty eConsult service: correlating response length with outcomes and satisfaction. Telemedicine and e-Health 2019 [epub before print]

  10. Liddy C, Bello A, Cook J, Drimer N, Dumas Pilon M, Farrell G, Glassford J, Ireland L, McDonald R, Nabelsi V, Oppenheimer L, Singer A, Keely E. Supporting the Spread and Scale-up of eConsult across Canada: cross-sectional analysis. BMJ Open 2019;9(5):e028888          **View the Infographic**

  11. Liddy C, Moroz I, Mihan A, Keely E. Assessment of the Generalizability of an eConsult Service through Implementation in a New Health Region. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 2019;32(2):146-157

  12. Liddy C, Abu-Hijleh T, Joschko J, Archibald D, Keely E. eConsults and Learning Between Primary Care Providers and Specialists. Family Medicine 2019;51(7):567-573

  13. Keely E, Liddy C. Transforming the specialist referral-consultation process in Canada. CMAJ 2019;191(15):E408-E409

  14. Bhola P, Liddy C, Afkham A, Keely E, Graham G. A Pilot eConsultation Service in Eastern Ontario: Bridging Clinical Genetics and Primary Care. European Journal of Human Genetics 2019;27(2):1026-1032

  15. de Man G, Moroz I, Mercer J, Keely E, Liddy C. Primary care clinician adherence to specialist advice in electronic consultationAnnals of Family Medicine 2019;17(2):150-157                       **View the Infographic**

  16. Tran C, Archibald D, Humohrey-Murto S, Liddy C, Keely E. What Makes a High-Quality electronic consultation (eConsult)?  A Nominal Group Study. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare 2019 [epub before print]

  17. Joschko J, Keely E, Grant R, Moroz I, Graveline M, Drimer N, Liddy C. Electronic Consultation Services Worldwide: Environmental Scan. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2018;20(12):e11112                                                                                                                               **View the Infographic**

  18. Tuot D, Liddy C, Vimalananda V, Pecina J, Murphy E, Keely E, Simon S, North F, Orlander J, Chen A. Evaluating diverse electronic consultation programs with a common framework. BMC Health Services Research 2018;18:814

  19. Chan E, Johnson C, Liddy C, Gautheir N, Keely E, Turek M, Shoki A, Archibald D. Paging the eCardiologist: Insights into Referral Behaviour of Primary Care Providers from Qualitative Analysis of a Cardiology eConsult Service. Digital Health 2018;4:1-9

  20. Liddy C, Moroz I, Joschko J, Horsley T, Kuziemsky C, Kovacs Burns K, Kossey S, Mitera G, Keely E. Using an integrated knowledge translation (IKT) approach to enable policy change for electronic consultations in Canada. Healthcare Policy 2018;14(1):19-29

  21. Archibald D, Stratton J, Liddy C, Grant R, Green D, Keely E. Evaluation of an electronic consultation service in psychiatry for primary care providers. BMC Psychiatry 2018;18,119
    **View the Infographic**

  22. Liddy C, Moroz I, Mihan A, Nawar N, Keely E. A Systematic Review of Asynchronous, Provider-to-Provider, Electronic Consultation Services to Improve Access to Specialty Care Available Worldwide. Journal of Telemedicine and e-Health 2019;25(3):184-198

  23. Archibald D, Liddy C, Lochnan HA, Hendry PJ, Keely E. Using Clinical Questions through eConsults to Inform Continuing Professional Development. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions 2018;38(1):41-48

  24. Keely E, Williams R, Epstein G, Afkham A, Liddy C. Specialist perspectives on Ontario eConsult services. Journal of Telemedicine and e-Health 2019;25(1):3-10
    **View the Infographic**

  25. Maciejewski B, Jaana M, Keely E, Crowe L, Liddy C. Social franchising: Scale and spread of innovation in Canada. Health Policy and Technology 2018;7:217-223

  26. Keely E, Canning S, Saloojee N, Afkham A, Liddy C. Improving access to Gastroenterologist using eConsultation: A way to potentially shorten wait times. Journal of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology 2018;1(3):124-128

  27. Bradi AC, Sitwell L, Liddy C, Afkham A, Keely E. Ask a Neurologist: What Primary Care Providers ask, and reducing referrals through eConsults. Neurology: Clinical Practice 2018;8(3)
    **View the Infographic**

  28. Liddy C, Keely E. Using the Quadruple Aim Framework to Measure Impact of Health Technology Implementation: A Case Study of eConsult. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 2018;31:445-455
    **View the Infographic**

  29. Liddy C, Moroz I, Keely E, Taljaard M, Mark Fraser A, Deri Armstrong C, Afkham A, Kendall C. The use of electronic consultations is associated with lower specialist referral rates: a cross-sectional study using population-based health administrative data. Family Practice 2018;6(12):698-705

  30. Liddy C, Moroz I, Afkham A, Keely E. Sustainability of a primary care driven eConsult service. Annals of Family Medicine 2018;16(2):120-128

  31. Liddy C, Nawar N, Moroz I, McRae S, Russell C, Mihan A, McKellips F, McLellan D, Crowe L, Afkham A, Keely E. Understanding  patient referral wait times for specialty care in Ontario: A retrospective chart audit. Healthcare Policy 2018;13(3):59-69

  32. Archibald D, Liddy C, Keely E. The doctor is (virtually) in: Using electronic consultation to provide access to prompt psychiatric services. Psychiatric Services 2018;69(3):362

  33. Keely E, Li J, Magner P, Afkham A, Liddy C. Nephrology eConsults for Primary Care Providers: Original Investigation. Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease 2018;5:1-6 
    **View the Infographic**

  34. Joschko J, Liddy C, Moroz I, Reiche M, Crowe L, Afkham A, Keely E. Just a click away: exploring patients’ perspectives on receiving care through the Champlain BASE™ eConsult service. Family Practice 2018;35(1):93-98. 
    **View the Infographic**

  35. Kohlert S, Murphy P, Tse D, Liddy C, Afkham A, Keely E. Improving access to otolaryngology–head and neck surgery expert advice through eConsultations. Laryngoscope 2018;128(2):350-355.
    **View the Infographic**

  36. Lai L, Liddy C, Keely E, Afkham A, Kurzawa J, Abdeen N, Audcent T, Bromwich M, Brophy J, Carsen S, Fournier A, Fraser-Roberts L, Gandy H, Hui C, Johnston D, Keely K, Kontio K, Lamontagne c, Major N, O'Connor M, Radhakrishnan D, Reisman J, Robb M, Samson L, Sell E, Splinter W, van Stralen J, Venkateswaran S, Murto K. The impact of electronic consultation on a Canadian tertiary care pediatric specialty referral system: A prospective single-center observational study. PLoS ONE 2018;13(1):e0190247
    **View the Infographic**

  37. Bilodeau H, Deri Armstrong C, Keely E, Liddy C. Who uses eConsult? Investigating physician characteristics associated with usage (and non-usage). Telemedicine and e-Health 2018;24(7):497-503

  38. Poulin PA, Romanow HC, Cheng J, Liddy C, Keely E, Smyth CE. Offering eConsult to family physicians with patients on a pain clinic wait-list: Results of an outreach exercise. Journal of Health Care Quality 2018;40(5):e71-e76

  39. Liddy C, Moroz I, Afkham A, Keely E. Evaluating the implementation of The Champlain BASE™ eConsult service in a new region of Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional study. Healthcare Policy 2017;13(2):79-95

  40. Liddy C, Smyth C, Poulin P, Joschko J, Sheppard M, Keely E. Supporting better access to chronic pain specialties: a qualitative study of the Champlain BASE™ eConsult service. J Am Board Fam Med 2017;30:766-774 
    **View the Infographic**

  41. Skeith L, Mohamed M, Karovitch A, Liddy C, Afkham A, Archibald D, Keely E. The use of eConsults to improve access to specialty care in thrombosis medicine. Thrombosis Research 2017;160:105-108
    **View the Infographic**

  42. Rostom K, Smith CD, Liddy C, Drosinis P, Keely E. Improving Access to Rheumatologists: Use and Benefits of an Electronic Consultation Service. Journal of Rheumatology 2018;45(1):1787-1795
    **View the Infographic**

  43. McKellips F, Keely E, Afkham A, Liddy C. Improving access to allied health professionals through the Champlain BASE eConsult Service: a cross-sectional study in Canada. British Journal of General Practice 2017;67(664):e757-e763

  44. Liddy C, Arbab-Tafti S, Moroz I, Keely E. Primary care physician referral patterns in Ontario, Canada: a descriptive analysis of self-reported referral data. BMC Family Practice 2017;18:81.

  45. Witherspoon L, Liddy C, Afkham A, Keely E, Mahoney J. Improving access to Urologists through an electronic consultation service. Canadian Urological Association Journal 2017;11(8): 270-274.

  46. Liddy C, Drosinis P, Fogel A, Keely E. Prevention of delayed referrals through the Champlain BASE eConsult Service. Canadian Family Physician 2017;63(8): e381-e386

  47. Liddy C, Poulin P, Hunter Z, Smyth C, Keely E. Patient perspectives on wait times and the impact on their life: A waiting room survey in a chronic pain clinic. Scandinavian Journal of Pain 2017;17: 53-57.

  48. Johnston DL, Murto K, Kurzawa J, Liddy C, Keely E, Lai L. Use of Electronic Consultation System to Improve Access to Care in Pediatric Hematology/Oncology. Journal of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology 2017;39(7):e367-e369
    **View the Infographic**

  49. Murthy R, Rose G, Liddy C, Afkham A, Keely E. eConsultations to Infectious Disease Specialists: Questions asked and impact on primary care providers' behaviour. Open Forum Infectious Diseases 2017:4(2):0fx030
    **View the Infographic**

  50. O'Toole A, Joo J, DesGroseilliers J-P, Liddy C, Glassman S, Afkham A, Keely E. The association between question type and the outcomes of a Dermatology eConsult service. International Journal of Dermatology 2017;56(8):836-841 
    **View the Infographic**

  51. Liddy C, McKellips F, Deri Armstrong C, Afkham A, Fraser-Roberts L, Keely E. Improving access to specialists in remote communities: a cross-sectional study and cost analysis of the use of eConsult in Nunavut. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2017;76(1): 1323493.

  52. Liddy C, Hunter Z, Mihan A, Keely E. Use of Facebook as part of a social media strategy for patient engagement. Canadian Family Physician 2017;63(3): 251-252

  53. Keely E, Archibald D, Tuot D, Lochnan H, Liddy C. Unique educational opportunities for PCPs and Specialists arising from electronic consultation services. Academic Medicine 2017;92(1):45-51. 

  54. Liddy C, Drosinis P, Joschko J, Keely E. Improving Access to Specialist Care for an Aging Population. Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine 2016;2:1-7.

  55. Shehata F, Posner G, Afkham A, Liddy C, Keely E. Evaluation of an Electronic Consultation Service in Obstetrics and Gynecology in Ontario. Obstetetrics and Gynecology 2016;127(6):1033-8.
    **View the Infographic**

  56. Tran C, Liddy C, Liu D, Afkham A, Keely E. eConsults to Endocrinologists Improve Access and Change Primary Care Provider Behavior. Endocrine Practice. 2016;22(10):1145-1150.
    **View the Infographic**

  57. Liddy C, Deri Armstrong C, McKellips F, Drosinis P, Afkham A, Keely E. Choosing a model for eConsult specialist remuneration: factors to consider. Informatics 2016;3(2):8

  58. Liddy C, Drosinis P, Deri Armstrong C, McKellips F, Afkham A, Keely E. What are the cost savings associated with providing access to care through the Champlain BASE eConsult service? BMJ Open 2016;6(6):e010920

  59. Fogel A, Khamisa K, Afkham A, Liddy C, Keely E. Ask the eConsultant: Improving access to hematology expertise using an asynchronous eConsult system. Telemedecine and Telecare. 2016;23(3):421-427. 
    **View the Infographic**

  60. Liddy C, Drosinis P, Keely E. Electronic consultation systems: worldwide prevalence and their impact on patient care: a systematic review. Family Practice. 2016 Jun; 33(3):274-85.

  61. Liddy C, Smyth C, Poulin P, Joschko J, Rebelo M, Keely E. Improving access to chronic pain services through eConsultation: A cross-sectional study of the Champlain BASE eConsult service. Pain Medicine. 2016;17(6):1049-1057.
    **View the Infographic** 

  62. Keely E, Tsang C, Liddy C, Farrell B, Power B, Way C. Rationale and model for integrating the pharmacist into the outpatient referral-consultation process. Canadian Family Physician. 2016;62(2):111-114.

  63. Liddy C, Joschko J, Keely E. Policy Innovation is Needed to Match Health Care Delivery Reform: The Story of the Champlain BASE eConsult Service. Health Reform Observer. 2015;10;3(2):1-11.

  64. Keely E, Liddy C. Critical requirements and considerations for establishing and participating in an eConsultation service: Lessons learned from the Champlain BASE team. Electronic Healthcare Law Review. 2015;5(1):5-6.

  65. Tran C, Liddy C, Pinto N, Keely E. Impact of Question Content on e-Consultation Outcomes. Telemedicine Journal and e-Health. 2016;22(3):216-222.

  66. Keely E, Traczyk L, Liddy C. Patients’ perspectives on wait times and the referral-consultation process while attending a tertiary diabetes and endocrinology centre: Is eConsultation an acceptable option? Canadian Journal of Diabetes. 2015;39(4):325-9.

  67. Keely E, Drosinis P, Afkham A, Liddy C. Perspectives of Champlain BASE Specialist Physicians: their experiences and recommendations for expanding eConsult services across Ontario. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. 2015;209:38-45.

  68. Liddy C, Deri Armstrong C, Drosinis P, Mito-Yobo F, Afkham A, Keely E. What are the costs of improving access to specialists through eConsultation? The Champlain BASE experience. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. 2015 May;209:67-74.

  69. Liddy C, Hogel M, Blazhko V, Keely E. The Current State of Electronic Consultation & Electronic Referral Systems in Canada: an Environmental Scan. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. 2015;209:75-83.

  70. Liddy C, Deri Armstrong C, McKellips F, Keely E. A comparison of referral patterns to a multispecialty eConsultation service between nurse practitioners and family physicians: the case for eConsult. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners. 2016;28(3):144-50.

  71. Liddy C, Afkham A, Drosinis P, Joschko J, Keely E. Impact of and satisfaction with a new eConsult service: a mixed methods study of primary care providers. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 2015;28(3):394-403.

  72. Keely E, Liddy C, Afkham A. Utilization, Benefits, and Impact of an e-Consultation Service across Diverse Specialties and Primary Care Providers. Telemedicine Journal and eHealth. 2013;19(10):733

  73. Liddy C, Maranger J, Afkham A, Keely E. The 10 Steps to Establishing an e-Consultation Service to Improve Access to Specialist Care. Telemedicine Journal and e-Health. 2013;19(12):982-90.                                                                                                                      **View the Infographic**

  74. Liddy C, Rowan SM, Afkham A, Maranger J, Keely E. Building Access to Specialist Care through E-Consultation. Open Medicine. 2013;7(1):e1-8.